Зеленые нанотехнологии

Опубликовано 16.08.2016
Олег Фиговский   |   просмотров - 559,   комментариев - 0
Зеленые нанотехнологии

В 2016 году выходит в свет книга «Зеленые нанотехнологии» (510 стр.), написанная членом Центрального правления Нанотехнологического общества России, академиком Олегом Фиговским и доктором Дмитрием Бейлиным.

Preface

Green nanotechnology has two goals: producing nanomaterials and products without harming the environment or human health, and producing nanoproducts that provide solutions to environmental problems. It uses existing principles of green chemistry and green engineering to make nanomaterials and nanoproducts without toxic ingredients, at low temperatures using less energy and renewable inputs wherever possible, and using lifecycle thinking in all design and engineering stages.

Green nanotechnology aims to develop clean technologies to minimize potential environmental and human health risks associated with the manufacture and use of nanotechnology products, and to encourage replacement of existing products with new nanomaterials that are more environ­mentally friendly.

There are two key aspects to green nanotechnology. The first involves nanoproducts that provide solutions to environmental challenges. These green nanoproducts are used to prevent harm from known pollutants and are incorporated into environmental technologies to remediate hazardous waste sites, clean up polluted streams, and desalinate water, among other applications. The second aspect of green nanotechnology involves producing nanomaterials and products containing nanomaterials with a view toward minimizing harm to human health or the environment.

Green nanotechnology involves the following:

- Use of less energy during manufacture.

- Ability to recycle after use.

- Using eco-friendly materials.

The most important component of nanotechnology is nanomaterials, i.e. materials with the ordered structure of their nanofragments having size from 1 to 100 nm. The production and process aspects of green nanotechnology involve both making nanomaterials in a more environmentally benign fashion and using nanomaterials to make current chemical processes more environmentally acceptable. A 2003 estimate by the Nanobusiness Alliance identified nanomaterials as the largest single category of nanotech start-ups

According to recommendation of 7th International Conference on Nanostructured Materials, Wiesbaden, 2004 nanomaterials are classified:

- Nanoporouse structures,

- Nanoparticles,

- Nanotubes and nanofibers,

- Nanodispersions (colloids),

- Nanostructured surfaces and films,

- Nanocrystals and nanoclusters,

- Nanocomposites.

There are two basic ways to create of nanoobjects:

1. Reduce the size of macroscopic objects (dispersing, disintegrating, grinding to the cluster level using a ball mills or using the mechanochemical synthesis);

2. Creating nanostructures from atoms and molecules (crystallization) clustering, nanostructuring, nucleation, condensation, coagulation, polymerization, etc.

The prospect of a new materials technology that can function as a low-cost alternative to high-performance materials has, thus, become irresistible around the world. By this means nanotechnology presents a new approach to material science and engineering as well as for design of new devices and processes.

According to the Congressional Research Service USA world industry uses nanotechnology in the production of 80 groups of consumer goods and more than 600 kinds of raw materials, component items and the industrial equipment. Figure below can give some imagine of the global business segments of nanotechnology.

Global nanotechnology

BCC Research provides an updated analysis of the nanotechnology products market in its report, Nanotechnology: A Realistic Market Assessment (NAN031F). The global market for nanotechnology products was valued at about $26 billion in 2014. This market is expected to reach about $64.2 billion in 2019, with a compound annual growth rate of 19.8% from 2014 to 2019.

American Association of National Science Foundation predicts that in the next 10-15 years, the market growth of nanogoods and services up to $ 1 trn:

This book contains information about advanced nanomaterials can be produced without harming the environment or human health. This encompasses the production of nanoma­terials without environmental toxicity, at room temperature and with the use of renewable energy sources. The book contains the descriptions and results of theoretical and experimental researches in the field of environment friendly nanotechnology carried out over the past decade by scientific team of company Polymate Ltd.-International Nanotechnology Center (www.polymateltd.com, Israel) under leadership of Prof. O. Figovsky. Developments of the Company have been used in industry and agriculture and protected by more than 25 patents of USA, Germany and Russia.

Let’s summarize contents of the monograph.

First chapter is concerned with interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) principle in production of composite materials provides an unique possibility to regulate their both micro- and nano- structures and properties. The chapter discusses principal features and characteristics of IPN composites. Formation of rubberiz­ing ebonite coatings on samples of oligobutadienes are examinated. Recent advances in chemistry and technology of nonisocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) materials based on cyclic carbonate oligomers are reviewed in this chapter. The use of NIPU materials as coatings, adhesives, and foams is described.

Second chapter presents a few methods of sol-gel synthesis: alkoxide, non-hydrolytic and colloidal. Sol-gel technology of nanocomposites based on the use of soluble silicates as precursors is discussed. Different types of nano-phase used for producing of the nanocomposites are examined. The various models of packaging of nanoparticles (spherical, fibrous and layered) introduced into the nanocomposite structure during its preparation are studied. Polymeric materials for structures and coat­ings are increasingly dominating corrosion- protection technology.

Chapter three describes the most effective method of improving protective properties by the use of additional components reducing the rate of diffusion of electrolytes in polymers and anti-corrosive silicate compounds. It is proposed the set of inorganic substances of composite polymeric materials which selectively interact with the water or water solutions of acids, salts, and alkalis in order to decrease their penetrability and increase their chemical resistance simultaneously.

Chapter fourth contains description of the new “green” manufacturing process of the nanostructured composite materials based on using physical phenomenon –superdeep penetration (SDP). Synthesis of a skeleton and formation of nanostructure is realized in metals, polymers and ceramics. Physical anomalies at the impact, which appearing in conditions when relative depth of a crater exceeds 10 determining sizes of striker are considered . Superdeep penetration is used for manufacturing of special composite metal materials with an unusual complex of properties. The SDP method of polymer tracking membranes production was developed.

Chapter five is devoted to creation of a new bioactive composite on a basis of silver nanoparticles. The biocidal effect of nanoparicles-modified paints and coatings is investigated. The structure and technology of biologically active nano-composites preparation is offered.

Sixth chapter presents a brief overview of the work in producing and studying of environment friendly nanostructured polymeric composites. Preparation technology and main applications of the nanocellulose is described. Novel environment friendly hydrophobic polymer composites were developed. Various types of the layer composites and their applications in production of packaging materials are described. The proposed biodegradable nanocomposite coating increases strength of the natural packaging materials and serves effective barrier against water and grease. Wastes of the novel polymer materials can be utilized in two ways: by repulping and by biodegradation.

Chapter seven is concerned with the problem of improving of seed germination conditions and development of plants and protecting plants from anticipated and averaged adverse conditions with help of biologically active nanochips

The majorresults of the works presented in this monograph were published mainly in the journal “Scientific Israel-Advanced Technology” (www.sita-journal.com) during 2005-2016 period.

The book will be useful to specialists in the field of chemical technology and materials engineering. 


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